Safari 12.1.1 security update

Apple released a security update for Safari, Safari 12.1.1, on May 13, 2019. This security update applies to macOS Sierra, macOS High Sierra, and macOS Mojave, and is included with the security updates for these operating systems released on May 13, 2019. You can subscribe to Apple security announcements at https://lists.apple.com/mailman/listinfo/security-announce/


APPLE-SA-2019-5-13-5 Safari 12.1.1

Safari 12.1.1 is now available and addresses the following:

WebKit
Available for: macOS Sierra 10.12.6, macOS High Sierra 10.13.6, and
included in macOS Mojave 10.14.5
Impact: Processing maliciously crafted web content may result in the
disclosure of process memory
Description: An out-of-bounds read was addressed with improved input
validation.
CVE-2019-8607: Junho Jang and Hanul Choi of LINE Security Team

WebKit
Available for: macOS Sierra 10.12.6, macOS High Sierra 10.13.6, and
included in macOS Mojave 10.14.5
Impact: Processing maliciously crafted web content may lead to
arbitrary code execution
Description: Multiple memory corruption issues were addressed with
improved memory handling.
CVE-2019-6237: G. Geshev working with Trend Micro Zero Day
Initiative, Liu Long of Qihoo 360 Vulcan Team
CVE-2019-8571: 01 working with Trend Micro’s Zero Day Initiative
CVE-2019-8583: sakura of Tencent Xuanwu Lab, jessica (@babyjess1ca_)
of Tencent Keen Lab, and dwfault working at ADLab of Venustech
CVE-2019-8584: G. Geshev of MWR Labs working with Trend Micro Zero
Day Initiative
CVE-2019-8586: an anonymous researcher
CVE-2019-8587: G. Geshev working with Trend Micro Zero Day Initiative
CVE-2019-8594: Suyoung Lee and Sooel Son of KAIST Web Security &
Privacy Lab and HyungSeok Han and Sang Kil Cha of KAIST SoftSec Lab
CVE-2019-8595: G. Geshev from MWR Labs working with Trend Micro Zero
Day Initiative
CVE-2019-8596: Wen Xu of SSLab at Georgia Tech
CVE-2019-8597: 01 working with Trend Micro Zero Day Initiative
CVE-2019-8601: Fluoroacetate working with Trend Micro’s Zero Day
Initiative
CVE-2019-8608: G. Geshev working with Trend Micro Zero Day Initiative
CVE-2019-8609: Wen Xu of SSLab, Georgia Tech
CVE-2019-8610: Anonymous working with Trend Micro Zero Day Initiative
CVE-2019-8611: Samuel Groß of Google Project Zero
CVE-2019-8615: G. Geshev from MWR Labs working with Trend Micro’s
Zero Day Initiative
CVE-2019-8619: Wen Xu of SSLab at Georgia Tech and
Hanqing Zhao of Chaitin Security Research Lab
CVE-2019-8622: Samuel Groß of Google Project Zero
CVE-2019-8623: Samuel Groß of Google Project Zero
CVE-2019-8628: Wen Xu of SSLab at Georgia Tech and
Hanqing Zhao of Chaitin Security Research Lab

Additional recognition

Safari
We would like to acknowledge Michael Ball of Gradescope by Turnitin
for their assistance.

Installation note:

Safari 12.1.1 may be obtained from the Mac App Store.

Information will also be posted to the Apple Security Updates
web site: https://support.apple.com/kb/HT201222

macOS Mojave 10.14.5 security update

Apple released a security update on May 13 that updated Mojave from macOS 10.14.4 to 10.14.5, updated High Sierra (macOS 10.13) with Security Update 2019-003, and updates Sierra (macOS 10.12) with Security Update 2019-003. You can subscribe to Apple security announcements at https://lists.apple.com/mailman/listinfo/security-announce/


APPLE-SA-2019-5-13-2 macOS Mojave 10.14.5, Security Update
2019-003 High Sierra, Security Update 2019-003 Sierra

macOS Mojave 10.14.5, Security Update 2019-003 High Sierra,
Security Update 2019-003 Sierra are now available and
addresses the following:

Accessibility Framework
Available for: macOS Sierra 10.12.6, macOS Mojave 10.14.4
Impact: An application may be able to read restricted memory
Description: A validation issue was addressed with improved input
sanitization.
CVE-2019-8603: Phoenhex and qwerty (@_niklasb, @qwertyoruiopz,
@bkth_) working with Trend Micro’s Zero Day Initiative

AMD
Available for: macOS Mojave 10.14.4
Impact: An application may be able to execute arbitrary code with
system privileges
Description: A memory corruption issue was addressed with improved
memory handling.
CVE-2019-8635: Lilang Wu and Moony Li of TrendMicro Mobile Security
Research Team working with Trend Micro’s Zero Day Initiative

Application Firewall
Available for: macOS Sierra 10.12.6, macOS Mojave 10.14.4
Impact: An application may be able to execute arbitrary code with
kernel privileges
Description: A logic issue was addressed with improved restrictions.
CVE-2019-8590: The UK’s National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC)

CoreAudio
Available for: macOS Sierra 10.12.6
Impact: Processing a maliciously crafted audio file may lead to
arbitrary code execution
Description: A memory corruption issue was addressed with improved
error handling.
CVE-2019-8592: riusksk of VulWar Corp working with Trend Micro’s Zero
Day Initiative

CoreAudio
Available for: macOS Mojave 10.14.4
Impact: Processing a maliciously crafted movie file may lead to
arbitrary code execution
Description: An out-of-bounds read was addressed with improved input
validation.
CVE-2019-8585: riusksk of VulWar Corp working with Trend Micro’s Zero
Day Initiative

DesktopServices
Available for: macOS Mojave 10.14.4
Impact: A malicious application may bypass Gatekeeper checks
Description: This issue was addressed with improved checks.
CVE-2019-8589: Andreas Clementi, Stefan Haselwanter, and Peter
Stelzhammer of AV-Comparatives

Disk Images
Available for: macOS Sierra 10.12.6
Impact: An application may be able to read restricted memory
Description: A validation issue was addressed with improved input
sanitization.
CVE-2019-8560: Nikita Pupyshev of Bauman Moscow State Technological
University

Disk Images
Available for: macOS Mojave 10.14.4
Impact: A malicious application may be able to read restricted memory
Description: An out-of-bounds read was addressed with improved bounds
checking.
CVE-2019-8560: Nikita Pupyshev of Bauman Moscow State Technological
University

EFI
Available for: macOS Mojave 10.14.4
Impact: A user may be unexpectedly logged in to another user’s
account
Description: An authentication issue was addressed with improved
state management.
CVE-2019-8634: Jenny Sprenger and Maik Hoepfel

Intel Graphics Driver
Available for: macOS Mojave 10.14.4
Impact: An application may be able to execute arbitrary code with
system privileges
Description: A memory corruption issue was addressed with improved
memory handling.
CVE-2019-8616: Lilang Wu and Moony Li of Trend Micro Mobile Security
Research Team working with Trend Micro’s Zero Day Initiative

Intel Graphics Driver
Available for: macOS Sierra 10.12.6, macOS Mojave 10.14.4
Impact: An application may be able to execute arbitrary code with
system privileges
Description: A memory initialization issue was addressed with
improved memory handling.
CVE-2019-8629: Arash Tohidi of Solita Oy

IOAcceleratorFamily
Available for: macOS Sierra 10.12.6
Impact: An application may be able to execute arbitrary code with
system privileges
Description: A memory corruption issue was addressed with improved
memory handling.
CVE-2018-4456: Tyler Bohan of Cisco Talos

IOKit
Available for: macOS Sierra 10.12.6, macOS Mojave 10.14.4
Impact: A local user may be able to load unsigned kernel extensions
Description: A validation issue existed in the handling of symlinks.
This issue was addressed with improved validation of symlinks.
CVE-2019-8606: Phoenhex and qwerty (@_niklasb, @qwertyoruiopz,
@bkth_) working with Trend Micro’s Zero Day Initiative

Kernel
Available for: macOS Sierra 10.12.6, macOS Mojave 10.14.4
Impact: A malicious application may be able to execute arbitrary code
with system privileges
Description: A use after free issue was addressed with improved
memory management.
CVE-2019-8605: Ned Williamson working with Google Project Zero

Kernel
Available for: macOS Mojave 10.14.4
Impact: A local user may be able to cause unexpected system
termination or read kernel memory
Description: An out-of-bounds read was addressed with improved bounds
checking.
CVE-2019-8576: Brandon Azad of Google Project Zero, unho Jang and
Hanul Choi of LINE Security Team

Kernel
Available for: macOS Sierra 10.12.6, macOS Mojave 10.14.4
Impact: An application may be able to cause unexpected system
termination or write kernel memory
Description: A type confusion issue was addressed with improved
memory handling.
CVE-2019-8591: Ned Williamson working with Google Project Zero

Security
Available for: macOS Sierra 10.12.6, macOS Mojave 10.14.4
Impact: An application may be able to execute arbitrary code with
system privileges
Description: A memory corruption issue was addressed with improved
memory handling.
CVE-2019-8604: Fluoroacetate working with Trend Micro’s Zero Day
Initiative

SQLite
Available for: macOS Mojave 10.14.4
Impact: An application may be able to gain elevated privileges
Description: An input validation issue was addressed with improved
memory handling.
CVE-2019-8577: Omer Gull of Checkpoint Research

SQLite
Available for: macOS Mojave 10.14.4
Impact: A maliciously crafted SQL query may lead to arbitrary code
execution
Description: A memory corruption issue was addressed with improved
input validation.
CVE-2019-8600: Omer Gull of Checkpoint Research

SQLite
Available for: macOS Mojave 10.14.4
Impact: A malicious application may be able to read restricted memory
Description: An input validation issue was addressed with improved
input validation.
CVE-2019-8598: Omer Gull of Checkpoint Research

SQLite
Available for: macOS Mojave 10.14.4
Impact: A malicious application may be able to elevate privileges
Description: A memory corruption issue was addressed by removing the
vulnerable code.
CVE-2019-8602: Omer Gull of Checkpoint Research

StreamingZip
Available for: macOS Mojave 10.14.4
Impact: A local user may be able to modify protected parts of the
file system
Description: A validation issue existed in the handling of symlinks.
This issue was addressed with improved validation of symlinks.
CVE-2019-8568: Dany Lisiansky (@DanyL931)

sysdiagnose
Available for: macOS Sierra 10.12.6, macOS Mojave 10.14.4
Impact: An application may be able to execute arbitrary code with
system privileges
Description: A memory corruption issue was addressed with improved
memory handling.
CVE-2019-8574: Dayton Pidhirney (@_watbulb) of Seekintoo (@seekintoo)

Touch Bar Support
Available for: macOS Sierra 10.12.6
Impact: An application may be able to execute arbitrary code with
system privileges
Description: A memory corruption issue was addressed with improved
memory handling.
CVE-2019-8569: Viktor Oreshkin (@stek29)

WebKit
Available for: macOS Mojave 10.14.4
Impact: Processing maliciously crafted web content may lead to
arbitrary code execution
Description: Multiple memory corruption issues were addressed with
improved memory handling.
CVE-2019-6237: G. Geshev working with Trend Micro Zero Day
Initiative, Liu Long of Qihoo 360 Vulcan Team
CVE-2019-8571: 01 working with Trend Micro’s Zero Day Initiative
CVE-2019-8583: sakura of Tencent Xuanwu Lab, jessica (@babyjess1ca_)
of Tencent Keen Lab, and dwfault working at ADLab of Venustech
CVE-2019-8584: G. Geshev of MWR Labs working with Trend Micro Zero
Day Initiative
CVE-2019-8586: an anonymous researcher
CVE-2019-8587: G. Geshev working with Trend Micro Zero Day Initiative
CVE-2019-8594: Suyoung Lee and Sooel Son of KAIST Web Security &
Privacy Lab and HyungSeok Han and Sang Kil Cha of KAIST SoftSec Lab
CVE-2019-8595: G. Geshev from MWR Labs working with Trend Micro Zero
Day Initiative
CVE-2019-8596: Wen Xu of SSLab at Georgia Tech
CVE-2019-8597: 01 working with Trend Micro Zero Day Initiative
CVE-2019-8601: Fluoroacetate working with Trend Micro’s Zero Day
Initiative
CVE-2019-8608: G. Geshev working with Trend Micro Zero Day Initiative
CVE-2019-8609: Wen Xu of SSLab, Georgia Tech
CVE-2019-8610: Anonymous working with Trend Micro Zero Day Initiative
CVE-2019-8611: Samuel Groß of Google Project Zero
CVE-2019-8615: G. Geshev from MWR Labs working with Trend Micro’s
Zero Day Initiative
CVE-2019-8619: Wen Xu of SSLab at Georgia Tech and
Hanqing Zhao of Chaitin Security Research Lab
CVE-2019-8622: Samuel Groß of Google Project Zero
CVE-2019-8623: Samuel Groß of Google Project Zero
CVE-2019-8628: Wen Xu of SSLab at Georgia Tech and
Hanqing Zhao of Chaitin Security Research Lab

WebKit
Available for: macOS Mojave 10.14.4
Impact: Processing maliciously crafted web content may result in the
disclosure of process memory
Description: An out-of-bounds read was addressed with improved input
validation.
CVE-2019-8607: Junho Jang and Hanul Choi of LINE Security Team

Additional recognition

CoreFoundation
We would like to acknowledge Vozzie and Rami and m4bln, Xiangqian
Zhang, Huiming Liu of Tencent’s Xuanwu Lab for their assistance.

Kernel
We would like to acknowledge an anonymous researcher for their
assistance.

PackageKit
We would like to acknowledge Csaba Fitzl (@theevilbit) for their
assistance.

Safari
We would like to acknowledge Michael Ball of Gradescope by Turnitin
for their assistance.

System Preferences
We would like to acknowledge an anonymous researcher for their
assistance.

Installation note:

macOS Mojave 10.14.5, Security Update 2019-003 High Sierra,
Security Update 2019-003 Sierra may be obtained from the
Mac App Store or Apple’s Software Downloads web site:
https://support.apple.com/downloads/

Information will also be posted to the Apple Security Updates
web site: https://support.apple.com/kb/HT201222

April 2019: Web browsers

Strait Macintosh User’s Group (SMUG)
April 2, 2019

Meeting: 7:00 p.m. to 8:00 p.m. at St. Luke’s Episcopal Church, Sequim

Meeting called to order by President Sabrina Davis and Vice President Lawrence Charters.

Two outstanding board positions, Treasurer and Secretary, remained to be filled. By unanimous vote, Analiss Schutzman was elected Treasurer and Kathleen Charters elected Secretary.

There was a discussion of the need for better communications. The SMUG forum had a note that the meeting was canceled and the organization dissolved, but at the last meeting in December, no such motions were entertained, and the February meeting was canceled due to show. Most attendees found out about the meeting either through direct contact with the President or Vice President, or through an announcement posted on Next Door (https://nextdoor.com/).

At present, there are no plans to charge for membership in 2019. The domain name and Internet hosting fees for the website are paid through 2019, with the only remaining expense being room rental for meetings. The membership voted to pay the room rental on a yearly basis, and to reimburse Sabrina for paying out of pocket for the April meeting rental.

It was also agreed that meetings would continue every other month in Sequim. If attendance and conditions warrant, more frequent meetings may be adopted.

Meeting topic: Web browsers

Lawrence Charters did a live, interactive presentation on the World Wide Web in general, with a particular emphasis on web security and privacy. The web began in 1990, with an experiment at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN, from the French Conseil européen pour la recherche nucléaire). Tim Berners-Lee developed a prototype web server on a NeXT computer, and it started serving out pages over the Internet in 1991. It rapidly eclipsed or replaced Gopher, FTP, newsgroups, and other Internet sources of information, and now the most widely used communications medium in history.

At its foundation, the web is based on text. As an example, this curl command (curl is built in to macOS) will fetch the opening page from the National Ocean Service website:

Capturing the first page of the National Ocean Service site using curl.
Capturing the first page of the National Ocean Service website using curl and macOS Terminal. Click on image for a larger view.

These elements of code are assembled by your web browser (Safari, Chrome, Firefox, etc.) into something (usually) much more useful: shopping sites, encyclopedias, dating sites, travel maps, etc.

Incidentally, email messages — even ones with graphics and sound and video — are also based on text. The text is assembled by your email client into discrete messages that look more like paper-based letters.

Because of abusive practices on the web, Google and Apple have been pushing hard for increased security and privacy. Safari on your Mac shows a lock icon when visiting an encrypted site; Google will show a lock in the location bar, and if visiting an insecure site, will display “Not Secure” right next to the URL.

It doesn’t matter if a site “sells” something; Apple and Google, and more recently Microsoft, want you to visit only encrypted sites. An unencrypted site can be easily compromised to, among other things, pass malware to your computer, or be used to “impersonate” a site.

With an encrypted site, anything you send between your device and the website is encrypted; it can’t be intercepted and read, or intercepted and modified. Google Chrome and Apple Safari also check the encryption certificates of a site to ensure that a) the certificate is valid and b) it is for the site it claims to represent.

Apple and Google also maintain a blacklist of sites that are known to be harmful. Apple does this through Gatekeeper, which is a combination of technologies that, among other things, periodically downloads a list of domains that your will refuse to visit. Google does this dynamically; every Chrome URL request checks with Google’s list of blacklisted sites.

Because of the security risks, Google also “downrates” sites that are not encrypted, pushing them down their rating results to discourage visits. Similarly, Apple does not allow iOS apps to make unencrypted web connections. These and other measures have resulted in a very rapid change to make encrypted websites (https and not http) the default on the web. There are still hundreds of millions of unencrypted sites; avoid them.

The easiest way to protect your Mac or iOS device: stay current with system and security updates.

In response to a question, Lawrence explained one major security difference between iOS devices and Android devices. Apple directly updates iOS (iPhone, iPad, iPod) devices. In the Android world, with one major exception, you need to go through your phone company. What this means: if you are on T-Mobile, or AT&T, or Verizon, or whatever, you can update your iPhone by just asking your device to do a software update, or responding to a prompt sent by Apple. But with almost all Android devices, the updates come directly from Verizon, T-Mobile, AT&T, etc., and while the device might theoretically qualify for a security update, the phone companies generally will not provide updates; they expect you to buy a new phone if you want an update. The exception: Google updates their Pixel devices directly.

Lawrence strongly recommended that everyone use long (15 characters or more), unique passwords for everything on the Internet. No password, for anything, should be reused somewhere else. To keep track of the passwords, use Apple’s Key Chain (free, and shared between iOS and Mac) or 1Password (paid, but much easier to understand and organize).

Don’t worry about “complex” passwords (use one upper case, one lower case, one symbol, one number) password. The important thing is to make them unique, and long; the longer the better. Spaces, by the way, count as a character.

Good: Kim Jong-un is a nutcase

Too short, and much harder to type correctly: K1mJ0Ng-nUTs

Passwords that are hard to type are easy to compromise because people tend to reuse them, or leave notes reminding themselves how to type them.

There were many more questions and topics than time available, so at the June meeting we will continue with:

Web security and privacy

While there are no privacy laws in the US, the European Union has imposed fairly demanding privacy laws, and as US companies want to do business with the EU, improved privacy is rapidly improving on major US websites. But individuals ultimately have the most control over their own privacy and security. We’ll talk about that in June.